I'm trying to get caught up here. So I'm posting about Chapter 6 Phonemic Awareness now. This was another great chapter. The lessons of course are more geared toward KK and 1st grade as you hope by 2nd grade that many of these skills are already developed or at least on their way. However, as we all know as teachers, this is not always the case. So, it's important information for 2nd grade teachers also.
What is Phonemic Awareness? We often confuse and use phonemes and phonics interchangeably but they are different concepts. They are both developmental and foundational to helping children learn to read. "Phonological awareness is an umbrella term that refers to an understanding of spoken words, and includes the awareness of words, syllables, rhymes, and individual sounds." Whereas a phoneme is the smallest unit of speech a word can be divided into. Once a student has mastered rhyming they are able to then manipulate words down to the phoneme. In this description it appears that phonics mastery leads to phonemic awareness. What do you think?
Given that rhyming is indicative of readiness for phonemic awareness she spends a section of the chapter on stages of rhyming. There's a chart and an example of a folder in the book to be used to see where your students are in regards to rhyming.
Heidi has made up a sheet to be used in a binder and it's on her blog here: Stages of Rhyming
She points out that students need to learn about these:
- phonological awareness, including listening, words and sentences, awareness of syllable, and playing with onset and rime (word families).
- concepts about print (read left to right; top to bottom, spaces between words, print has a message)
- letter names, shapes, sounds, and formation
Phonemic awareness is about the sounds. Phonemic awareness activities may include:
- sound matching
- sound isolation (initial, then final, then medial sounds)
- sound blending
- sound segmenting
- sound addition, deletion, substitution
Phonemic awareness activities should be playful and engaging not drills. They should begin only with sounds with no letters. Overtime, print can be added to phonemic awareness activities.
Key point in this chapter to me is that ***Phonemic Awareness is the most potent predictor of success in learning to read (Stanovich 1986, 1994). That's crucial to understand. So, if you have struggling readers in second grade, clearly, it's important to understand where they may be gaps in phonological and/or phonemic awareness.
There's a 2 page spread on possible lesson topics and activities so you definitely will want to check those out (pages 94-95). Possible phonological focuses include: rhyming, alliteration, sentence segmenting, syllable blending and segmenting. Possible phonemic awareness focuses could include: onset-rime segmenting and blending, sound matching, counting phonemes in a word, blending phonemes to make a word, isolating beginning phoneme in a word, isolating the final phoneme in a word, isolating the medial phoneme in a word, segmenting phonemes in a word, and substituting one phoneme for another.
Much of your phonics and phonemic instruction can take place in whole group about 20 minutes 3 to 4 times a week. Those that struggle with an aspect could benefit from small group help. Small group is probably more helpful than one-on-one. She has a folder for the stages of Phonological Awareness. I made one up that you could either put side by side in a binder or print out and glue in a folder. Click the picture. It actually has some clipart on it but I added it after the screen shot.
She makes the point to state not to move on to phonemic awareness until children understand how to rhyme, segment sentences into words, and clap their names by syllables, and are beginning to be able to separate onsets from rimes. (Diller, p. 96)
Phonic and Phonemic instruction should be explicit. Therefore, like her other chapters, she gives you a chart about Prompts for Phonemic Awareness. Yes, I typed it up for you!
Click the preview!
The idea is to build "your students' sound base, one block at at time -- from words, to syllables, to onset and rime, to individual phonemes." (p. 112).
Another great chapter with many lesson plans for both phonological awarenes and phonemic awareness. I have typed up the lesson plans. They are here but no preview!
I hope you have enjoyed the information in this post and the shares. Still loving the book and all the great information!
I was surfing pinterest and came upon this FREEBIE! She has an assessment for all of the phonological awareness areas. If you don't have something you already use in your school/district this would be GREAT!! And did you read it's free???